• AFF

    American Forest Foundation

  • AOX

    Absorbable Organic Halogens


    Association of Southeast Asian Nations

  • ATFS

    American Tree Farm System

  • ATO

    African Timber Organization

  • AZE

    Alliance for Zero Extinction

  • BOD

    Biological Oxygen Demand

  • CBD

    Convention on Biological Diversity

  • CEPI

    Confederation of European Paper Industries


    Center for International Forestry Research


    Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora

  • CO2

    Carbon Dioxide

  • CoC


  • COD

    Chemical Oxygen Demand

  • CPET

    Central Point of Expertise on Timber Procurement (UK)

  • CPI

    Corruption Perception Index

  • CSA

    Canadian Standards Association

  • ECF

    Elemental Chlorine Free

  • EECF

    Enhanced Elemental Chlorine Free

  • EMS

    Environmental Management System

  • EPAT®

    Environmental Paper Assessment Tool

  • EPE

    European Partners for the Environment

  • FAO

    Food and Agriculture Organization

  • FCAG

    Forest Certification Assessment Guide

  • FECV

    Forests with Exceptional Conservation Value


    Forest Industry Carbon Assessment Tool

  • FLEG

    Forest Law Enforcement and Governance


    Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade

  • FPAC

    Forest Products Association of Canada

  • FPIC

    Free Prior and Informed Consent

  • FSC

    Forest Stewardship Council

  • GBI

    The Green Building Initiative

  • GFTN

    Global Forest and Trade Network

  • GHG

    Green House Gases

  • GMOs

    Genetically Modified Organisms (also Genetically Modified – GM)

  • GPN

    Green Purchasing Network

  • HCVF

    High Conservation Value Forests

  • IFC

    International Finance Corporation

  • IGPN

    International Green Purchasing Network

  • IPCC

    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change


    Intergovernmental Panel on Forests/ Intergovernmental Forum on Forests

  • IPM

    Integrated Pest Management

  • ISO

    International Organization for Standardization

  • ITTO

    International Tropical Timber Organization

  • IUCN

    World Conservation Union, formerly International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources


    International Union of Forest Research Organizations

  • LAS

    Legality Assurance System

  • LCA

    Life Cycle Assessment

  • LEED

    Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design

  • LEI

    Lembaga Ekolabel Indonesia (Indonesian Ecolabeling Institute)

  • MTCS

    Malaysian Timber Certification System


    National Council for Air and Stream Improvement, Inc.

  • NGO

    Non-Governmental Organization

  • PEFC

    Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification


    Pan-European Operational Level Guidelines

  • SFI, Inc.

    Sustainable Forestry Initiative, Inc.

  • SFM

    Sustainable Forest Management

  • SMS

    Social Management System

  • TCF

    Totally Chlorine Free

  • TFT

    Tropical Forest Trust

  • TI

    Transparency International

  • TLTV

    Timber Legality and Traceability

  • TTAP

    Timber Trade Action Plan

  • TTF

    Timber Trade Federation

  • UNEP

    United Nations Environment Programme

  • VLC

    Verification of Legal Compliance

  • VLO

    Verification of Legal Origin

  • VOCs

    Volatile Organic Compounds

  • VPA

    Voluntary Partnership Agreement

  • WB

    World Bank


    World Business Council for Sustainable Development

  • WCMC

    World Conservation Monitoring Centre

  • WRI

    World Resources Institute

  • WWF

    World Wide Fund for Nature


  • bill of lading

    A document establishing the terms of contract between a shipper and a transportation company to move freight from one point to another for a specific charge. The shipper often prepares the bill of lading on forms issued by the carrier (GFTN, 2005).

  • biodiversity

    Also, biological diversity. The variety of living organisms from all sources including terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems, as well as the ecological complexes of which they are part. This includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems (CBD, 2007).

  • carbon sequestration

    The different processes through which carbon is removed from the atmosphere and stored in soil, biomass, geological formations and oceans.

  • chain-of-custody (CoC)

    The systematic tracking of wood-based products from their origin in the forest to their end-use.

  • clearcutting

    A timber harvesting method that involves the removal of standing trees in a given area (ACF, 2006).

  • critical forests

    See Table 12.

  • critically endangered species

    Species considered to be facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild (IUCN, 2006).

  • endangered forests

    See Table 12.

  • endangered species

    Any species facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild. Examples of endangered commercial tree species include Cerjeira or roble del país (Amburana cearensis), Palissandre (Dalbergia davidii), and Australian hickory (Flindersia ifflaiana) (IUCN, 2006).

  • endemic species

    Species that live exclusively in certain areas and do not exist anywhere else (IUCN, 2006).

  • engineered wood

    Also known as composite woods, engineered woods are manufactured by binding wood particles or fibers with adhesives to meet specific design requirements. Uses of engineered woods are often similar to those of solid wood (Composite Panel Association, 2007). Engineered wood products include plywood, oriented strand board and fiberboard.

  • environmental management systems (EMS)

    A set of processes and practices that enables an organization to reduce its environmental impacts and increase operational efficiency (EPA, 2007).

  • exotic species

    A species that exists in the free state in an area but is not native to that area. (IUCN, 2007A).

  • fiberboard

    An engineered wood made of wood fibers or particles bonded together with wax and adhesives. Fiberboards include particle board, medium-density fiberboard, high-density fiberboard and hardboard, depending on the density of the particles

  • flagship species

    A species that can be used to anchor a conservation campaign because it arouses public interest and sympathy (Simberloff, 1998).

  • forest concession

    Generally speaking, a forest concession is a contract between a forest owner and another party, allowing the management and harvesting of wood resources from a given area (Gray, 2002).

  • forest conversion

    When natural forests are converted to highly cultivated forests, typically with an increased focus on wood production, and decreased environmental benefits.

  • forest land-use change

    Also called Deforestation – where forests are being converted from natural forests to other land uses (agriculture, cattle ranching, urbanization, etc). Such land-use change may or may not be legal and can result in forested areas that do not have the prospect of being sustainably managed.

  • forests with exceptional conservation value (FECV)

    See Table 12.

  • free prior informed consent (FPIC)

    ILO’s Convention 186 (ILO, 1998), defines FPIC as the right of communities “to exercise control, to the extent possible, over their own economic, social and cultural development.” The principles FPIC are evolving through international debate to help define and require appropriate consultation and consent. A full discussion can be found in Herz et al., 2007.

  • frontier forests

    See Table 12.

  • genetically modified organisms (GMOs)

    An organism that, through human intervention in a laboratory, has had its genetic code deliberately altered. Genetic modification may be used to alter any of a wide range of traits (Alberta Forest Genetic Resources Council, 2007).

  • high conservation value forests (HCVF)

    See Table 12.

  • indicator species

    Species that define a characteristic or trait of the environment. Indicator species are used to assess the condition of an environment because they are often more sensitive than other species to environmental changes.

  • intact forest landscapes (IFL)

    See Table 12.

  • integrated pest management (IPM)

    An approach to enhancing crop and livestock production, based on an understanding of ecological principles. Chemical pesticides are used only when biological and cultural control methods and available technologies fail to keep pests below acceptable levels, and when assessment of associated risks and benefits indicates that the benefits of the use of chemicals outweigh the costs (SPIPM, 2007).

  • invasive species

    Species which are non-native to the ecosystem under consideration, and whose introduction is likely to cause economic, environmental, or human health harm (NISIC, 2007).

  • kenaf

    A plant related to cotton and okra that can be used as alternative fiber for paper-making (Vision Paper, 2007).

  • key biotopes

    See Table 12.

  • keystone species

    Species whose activity governs the well-being of many other species (Simberloff, 1998).

  • life cycle assessment (LCA)

    A tool to objectively evaluate the overall environmental impacts associated with a product.

  • major tropical wilderness areas

    See Table 12.

  • non-wood forest products (NWFP)

    All forest products except timber. Non-wood forest products include other materials obtained from trees, such as resins and leaves, as well as other plant and animal products, such as mushrooms, berries, medicinal herbs, game, etc. (FAO, 2007A).

  • old growth forests

    A forest that has originated through natural succession and maintains significant portions of dead wood and old trees. A multi-layered structure is often present and the forest may be at climax (mature) stage (Lund, 2007).

  • oriented strand board

    An engineered wood made from strands of wood in specific orientations bonded together with wax and adhesives. Oriented strand board has similar properties to plywood but is less expensive.

  • paper-based products

    Include cardboard and various types of paper such as newsprint, copy paper, tissue paper, and construction paper.

  • phytosanitary certificate

    A document often required by governments for the import of non-processed plant products. Depending on the state or country, export products should meet certain sanitary standards related to storage, pests, plant diseases, chemical treatment and weeds (GFTN, 2005).

  • plywood

    An engineered wood made of thin slices of wood bonded together with adhesives. Plywood is used for many purposes because of its strength, resistance to twisting, cracking, and shrinkage.

  • protected areas

    IUCN defines a protected area as an area of land and/ or sea especially dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biological diversity, and of natural and associated cultural resources, and managed through legal or other effective means (IUCN, 2007B).

  • pulp mill

    Manufacturing facility to reduce wood into cellulose fibers for paper-making.

  • sawmill

    Manufacturing facility to cut logs into boards

  • scope 1, 2 and 3 GHG emissions

    Direct and indirect GHG emissions. Scope 1 are emissions from sources that are controlled or owned by the reporting/assessing entity. Scope 2 are GHG emissions from consumption of purchased electricity, heat or steam. Scope 3 are other indirect emissions, such as those associated with the extraction or production of purchased materials and fuel, transport-related activities in vehicles not owned or controlled by the reporting entity, electricity-related activities not covered in Scope 2, outsourced activities, waste disposal, etc. (GHG 2009).

  • social management system (SMS)

    A management system to encompass the conscious management of interactions between an organization and its social environment (Social Management Systems, 2007).

  • solid wood products

    Include lumber or timber products for building materials and furniture

  • special places

    For the purpose of this guide, the term special forests is used as a generic term to mean areas in the forest landscape that have unique qualities and need special attention and treatment.

  • species richness

    The number of different species found in a specific area. Species richness is used as a measure of biodiversity.

  • supply chain (also supply system)

    The different steps through which wood and paper-based products go, from being harvested to an end product

  • threatened species

    Threatened species is a group of three categories: critically endangered species, endangered species, and vulnerable species. Endangered species are considered to be facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild, while vulnerable species are considered to be facing a high risk of extinction in the wild (IUCN, 2007A).

  • traceability

    The ability to track wood between two subsequent points of the chain of custody.

  • umbrella species

    Species that, if protected, protect many other species because of their large-size habitat requirements (Simberloff, 1998).

  • unwanted sources

    In addition to illegal logging, a number of controversial sources of wood including: protected areas or forests that have been proposed for national parks but have not yet been formally protected; forests deemed to be special forests; forests where there are serious tenure disputes (particularly where these involve the failure to respect the customary rights of indigenous or local people); forests that are inappropriately converted to other land uses (Nussbaum and Simula, 2005)

  • vulnerable species

    When a species is facing a high risk of extinction in the wild. Commercial vulnerable tree species include Afzelia (Afzelia bipindensis), Merbau (Intsia bijuga), and Tule (Milicia excels) (IUCN, 2006).

  • water effluent

    Waterborne waste.